He or she may be knowledgeable about the research available on your topic and different scholars you may be interested in investigating. In addition, your instructor may well suggest your topic is too general or specialized and be able to aid you in the process of refining or reworking your topic of choice. This is perhaps the most important step in the research paper writing process. Your research not only provides you ethos as a writer by revealing your knowledge and understanding of the topic, but also will very likely shape both your understanding and interpretation of the topic.
Listed below are several important tips for conducting research and notetaking: Creating a Tentative Thesis. After rereading your notes and reflecting on the topic, formulate a tentative one-sentence thesis. A thesis states your stance on a specific issue regarding the text. The remainder of your essay should expand upon and strengthen your primary claim or interpretation. Note that this claim need not refute other literary scholarship; however, this claim should either shed light or extrapolate upon an existing interpretation or offer a new interpretation.
It should not consist of the writer merely restating the claims of other authors. An initial thesis should be tentative. Remain willing to change your thesis throughout the writing process.
You may very likely end with a thesis quite distinctive from your initial thesis. If this is the case, be certain to revisit your paper in order to ensure that this transition in opinion is not inapproriately evident.
Leading the reader through your thought process is not problematic, but a conclusion in opposition to your initial thoughts is.
Constructing a Comprehensive Outline. An organized, fluid outline is the start of any good research paper. It aids the writer in constructing a paper which logically proceeds from one related point to the next. An outline should consist of three primary headings--the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion--as well as a number of subheadings regarding more specific categories of discussion. Analyze, sythnesize, and organize research according to your outline.
Research should proceed sequentially in accordance with your tentantive outline. It may be helfpful to include an additional means of indicating specific subcategories discussed by different authors. For example, you may choose to highlight all discussion of Lady Macbeth in a specific color; as a result, your notes will be organized both by author and specific subcategories. Some research may prove irrelevant to your topic and should therefore be excluded.
If you find yourself strugging with specific notions set forth by an author, it is likely in your best interest to either seek faculty help or exclude such materials. This is also an opportunity to juxtapose the views of different authors in order to guage the efficacy and validity of specific interpretations. Writing Your Research Paper. Once you have created a compehensive outline and organized your research, it is time to begin writing your research paper.
Begin by writing a first draft, taking time away from your work, and then revisiting it a day or two later. Consider taking this draft to the Writing Center to have a second pair of eyes examine it, as it is very common for writers to fail to recognize their own errors.
Before submitting, make certain you have completed the following checklist: As Hjortshoj notes in The Transition to College Writing , "In general, teachers view the typical student paper to be comparable to a rough draft that needs further thought, development, revision, and editing" Most teachers stress the revision stage as one of the most important stages in the research paper writing process. Provide yourself ample time to properly and thoroughly review and edit your paper.
Consider making an appointment to take your paper to the Writing Center. A consultant can adivse you on the clarity and overall strength of your paper, along with other integral shortcomings. Choosing an Area of Focus One of the most important steps in the process of writing a research paper for the English discipline is choosing an interesting, engaging topic.
Your choice of topic will influence both the effort you invest in your research and the degree to which you enjoy the process. Choose a topic you find challenging and interesting. Be aware of how much research is available on your topic of choice. Although it is important to offer readers a new interpretation or perspective of the work under investigation, you need not be deterred if your area of focus is widely discussed.
It is useful to learn how to incorporate the insights and ideas of other scholars within your own personal findings. In this case, make sure that you refer to it. This is probably the most variable part of any research paper, and depends on the results and aims of the experiment. For quantitative research , it is a presentation of the numerical results and data, whereas for qualitative research it should be a broader discussion of trends, without going into too much detail.
For research generating a lot of results , then it is better to include tables or graphs of the analyzed data and leave the raw data in the appendix, so that a researcher can follow up and check your calculations. A commentary is essential to linking the results together, rather than just displaying isolated and unconnected charts and figures. It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the results and the discussion section, because some findings, especially in a quantitative or descriptive experiment , will fall into a grey area.
Try to avoid repeating yourself too often. It is best to try to find a middle path, where you give a general overview of the data and then expand on it in the discussion - you should try to keep your own opinions and interpretations out of the results section, saving that for the discussion later on. This is where you elaborate on your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations. Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each point individually.
In keeping with the hourglass principle, you can expand on the topic later in the conclusion. The conclusion is where you build on your discussion and try to relate your findings to other research and to the world at large. In a short research paper, it may be a paragraph or two, or even a few lines. In a dissertation, it may well be the most important part of the entire paper - not only does it describe the results and discussion in detail, it emphasizes the importance of the results in the field, and ties it in with the previous research.
Some research papers require a recommendations section, postulating the further directions of the research, as well as highlighting how any flaws affected the results.
In this case, you should suggest any improvements that could be made to the research design. No paper is complete without a reference list , documenting all the sources that you used for your research. This should be laid out according to APA , MLA or other specified format, allowing any interested researcher to follow up on the research. One habit that is becoming more common, especially with online papers, is to include a reference to your own paper on the final page.
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Research paper help online is amazingly simple to order. This article explores the ordering process and what a student needs to buy a paper. Introduction For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve.. For others, the introduction is the last thing written, acting as a quick summary of the paper. As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper.