Through co-operation and interaction, but not direct instruction, Vygotsky believed that children would gain more from learning, than they would independently Petty, ; this is known as scaffolding. In lesson 2, pupils were asked to read a script of a scene adapted from the novel and wrote down their level of understanding from At the end of the lesson pupils reread the script and reassessed their understanding out of 10 compared to the beginning of the lesson; no pupils understanding was reduced.
The methods of teaching for each lesson in the scheme of work were influenced by a number of other theories. He called for a broader education using differentiated activities, methodologies and exercises which aid pupils with different strengths and weaknesses to access the curriculum Petty, This was used, for example, in lesson 1, as the active listening activity used 2 variations of handout to account for the range of ability in the class.
The first lesson included visual clues of Dickens times and a short animation, to introduce the social and historical setting National Curriculum, , before a close-textual analysis activity visual. Pupils then completed a table using the audio and transcript for Chapter 1. Most pupils preferred to read the transcript than listen to the audio. In lesson 2, learning was mainly kinaesthetic, with pupils having 10 minutes to write their own script before acting it out in small groups.
They were given a purposefully short time to encourage spontaneity in their performance, but pupils struggled with embarrassment and confidence. Speaking and listening are an important part of the GCSE qualification that pupils often find difficult; regular practise should, according to Bruner, lead to improvement Capel et al, However, pupils found acting so difficult in lesson 2, that the plan was adapted to allow pupils to work in pairs. An alternative solution, the double-loop, will be discussed later in the essay.
What is more, the SOW encouraged active participation through independent learning Burns and Myhill, Finding a balance between these pedagogical theories and government and academy policy is difficult; they are inherently contradictory. This essay will discuss how the SOW could have been improved by evaluating planning and student attainment, whilst analysing the pedagogical theory that informed the lessons. During the SOW pupil attainment could be assessed, using AfL linked to the learning objectives, which highlighted some notable issues for improvement and some areas of success, as discussed earlier.
Unlike subjects such as maths and science, student attainment is difficult to measure and can be subjective. This aside, it is often obvious when a pupil is struggling if AfL is used correctly and regularly. One activity where this was particularly obvious was the active listening activity in lesson 1, where no pupils finished the table.
This approach would not be suitable for other problems encountered in the SOW, such as complicated language. In lesson 1, pupils were asked to underline pre vocab. Merely revisiting these words, as suggested by Bruner, will not help pupils to understand them; words are invalid without meaning. First, a new word must be defined, relative to previous learning and associated words, before it can be used and revisited to ensure deep understanding. A class-level solution is to use challenging words as key words and create a glossary to define them.
This is in stark contrast the linguist Chomsky, who believed that the human capacity to acquire language to be an innate trait that must be nurtured and supported; Vygotsky too placed more emphasis on language, describing both speech and thinking as activities Liu and Mathews, Cultural acquisition is inherent in language acquisition, therefore all dialogue is subjective. Put simply, allowing for flexibility in learning styles and outcomes in individuals, on an activity-by-activity basis, rather than having a generalised profile of each student, encourages inclusivity.
William and Blake , as is common in constructivist theory, concentrate on the cognitive development of pupils, supporting them in reaching their ZPD. This theory does not take in to consideration the practicalities of the classroom, where teachers are increasingly target- and data-driven, resulting in strategic learning Entwhistle, , creating an environment where creativity and originality have no home, and are replaced with objectives, outcomes and levels.
Klien argues that having prescript outcomes has lead to the death of the imagination; the outcome is now a C-grade at GCSE. The obsession with measuring has resulted, very clearly in this class, with pupils who are driven by results, even at 11 and Shirley Williams, former Education Secretary Williams, blames suffocating government control. She uses an statement from the Commons departmental committee to support her point: Due to academy policy School, this SOW had to use objectives and pupil attainment is measured against them.
The 3 overarching objectives, 1. Students struggled, however, to infer and deduce meaning in order to interpret information from extracts objective 1. As mentioned previously, this skill must be revisited Bruner , using single-loop learning cycle, revising teaching strategies and learning styles, scaffolding activities, to support understanding. It is also important to ensure those who have grasped the skill are sufficiently pushed.
Having planned, taught and evaluated the SOW, there are a number of implications that I, the teacher, have for my future practise. Firstly, I recognise that previously taught skills are often perceived to be new by pupils. According to Bruner Capel et al, , using a maths example, the number of concrete examples needed for a child to understand fractions in year 5 will be substantially higher than a child in year Pupils in my class have been taught quotes and the PEA structure by me over a series of lessons in a previous SOW, yet approached the subject with similar unfamiliarity in this SOW, requiring more support and scaffolding than the lesson plans allotted.
As a result, student-teacher dialogue often felt rushed by the end of the lesson. The second improvement would be, therefore, to include structured open questioning, a high order skill Pollard, , to ensure pupils are pushed to the edge of their ZPD by synthesising information. Practically, this requires planned questions, written in to PowerPoints and plans. Hands-down questioning seemed to work best in this situation, giving pupils time to process information, knowing that they may be asked to answer the question.
This is a process I plan to use with all my classes and there was a dramatic improvement in engagement when pressure was applied. A stumbling block throughout the 6 lesson was the need to define words essential to the activity.
I hope that visual learners will find posters of key terms on the walls and a written glossary helpful, whilst I am in the processing of planning kinaesthetic lessons on using quotes for the next SOW, pre poetry. These improvements will impact upon my future teaching, and will lead to further reflection and improvement on their success. Writing, planning, delivering and evaluating a SOW, in light of pedagogical theory has given me a greater understanding and knowledge of how theory applies to my everyday practise through an active role.
This has been an invaluable exercise. Ways Pupils Learn in Capel, S. Davison, J and Dowson, J. Change for Children, London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd. National Foundation for Educational Research. Ofsted Narrowing the Gap: This is mostly due to the fact that they have a high regard for education, have access to the best research facilities and have rich intellectual culture.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the education systems Differentiate between education management and education leadership For education to achieve its set objectives and mission, there must be people whom fore sees the implementation and dissemination of the set objectives.
A leader must inspire while a managers brings about transformation. There are many differences between manager and leaders which includes: Leadership inspires change in education, managers manages transformation in education A leader must set During the Crimean war to , Florence nightingale experienced the positive impact that a trained nurse can have on patient care. Her experience lead to her creating the nightingale training school for nurses at St.
The nursing education model she advocated for was based on apprenticeship, where women were trained in hospitals. The nightingale model of apprenticeship was Education is the most vital element that a person should possess.
It can be obtained directly for example at home, in school and in religious place and, indirectly while seeing films and, experience from life. In every country education is the key issue of the government to provide better knowledge to the young generation. Whitty and Wisby, states that changes in goverance arrangements for Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.
Choose an optimal rate and be sure to get the unlimited number of samples immediately without having to wait in the waiting list. Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Assessment PGCE Essay Sample What theories of learning and teaching influenced, and were developed by, your planning, teaching, assessment and evaluation of a unit of work?
Carfax Publishing Byers, R. David Fulton Publishers Capel, S. Routledge Davison, J and Dowson, J. Crown Copyright Paquette, D. Nelson Thorne Pinker, S.
Masters level is very tight on certain things. Critical analysis is one of them. You need to be able to extensively review literature and back up your own claims. Basically, this means a lot of reading. I spent quite a few weeks just reading and making notes on key points. Get hold of journals, any official documents etc. The university will want to see you have researched extensively. Keep the focus in your head. Try not to deviate and look for key points. If you find a book that is as relevant as you can get to your area of research, look through its reference list for related articles.
Often references are quoted directly in text, and you will need to pay attention what exactly was referenced so you know it is relevant information to follow. This is when you need to also start critically analysing them. What are they disagreeing on? What do you think? This is a particularly hard skills as you really have to read between the lines. The idea here really is that you are making space for your own claims. Sometimes it could be simply nodding along with other researchers by referencing them when making a similar point, or suggesting your own ideas referencing researchers who support this.
Methodology - this is also a biggie as at masters level they like to see you carefully choosing your methodology. Think of it as a science experiment really with validity, reliability etc. Easily the most tedious part of research, is the reference list. You must check how your university expects you to organise referencing, as it can differ. Always write your references down as you go along, and try and reference them properly from the start as it can take hours to get a full reference list right mine was pages long.
I hope this helps. Jenerena , Oct 30, Thank you for your detailed response. I will definately use your tips. The only problem is the word count. I am not very good in keeping with in the word count so I am restricting myself from the wider reading and secondly because my assignment is based on current issues in the education,I can only find newspaper articles and a few journals so I dont have the wider reading from books to back it up, do you think that would make a difference?
Nikki , Oct 30, Jenerena, thank you so much for the detailed response to this!!
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