This can be seen in everyday life as FedEx employees use wireless handheld devices to help track packages, and determine sender and receiver information to help organizations conduct business more efficiently. To Hertz car rental employees pulling up driver and car rental information in a parking lot, several hundred feet away from their stationary computers.
One of the most notable impacts of satellite technology has been in the news media. It can be used with any telephone line, ISDN connection, or satellite phone. This forced CNN to squeeze the picture down to a small insert. The rest of the field was then filled with additional information related to the story. CNN first began using the videophones in December , when correspondent Nic Robertson used an earlier model to broadcast exclusive pictures and sound of a hijacking in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
The videophone was also prominent when CNN broadcast the first live pictures of the crew members released from the U. Navy spy plane in China when they landed on the Pacific Island of Guam. Other fields of industry, not so prominent, have also benefited from advancements in satellite technology. A network-in-a-box was developed by combining routers, satellite and servers into a single self-contained unit. The network units also offer built-in data encryption and compression features, enabling the secure transmission of sensitive data around the world.
Customers on-site can also share the available bandwidth to securely connect with their own internal information systems. Some banks are finding that using satellites for data transmission can improve network performance and cut costs as well as provide benefits in staff training and customer satisfaction. Most banks have relied on 56 Kbps landline frame relay services to carry data traffic to and from their branches.
But a pronounced increase in traffic, fueled by the explosive growth in Internet-based applications, is increasing clogging these circuits and causing bottlenecks. When reviewing the systems employed by banks in Canada, it was determined that most banks transmit large volumes of data from head office to their branches while branches typically return considerably less data to head office. The introduction of satellite technology has also given the banks the bandwidth to offer a comprehensive suite of services to their remote branches that typically lack high-speed landline services.
For Canada Trust bank, the service has been utilized to train employees at branches across Canada. Sessions are held at a Toronto studio and broadcast live to employees at a time. School systems have also had to beef up their networks to the point where they rival or exceed the capacity of many corporate networks, due to the explosive growth in student Internet usage.
School systems around the country have deployed unlicensed wireless networks, tapped the bandwidth of cable television systems and even employed satellite service as a cheaper and more reliable alternative to local telephone companies.
The utilization of satellites has also offered the possibility of connectivity to schools in remote areas where they do not always have access to multiple wire-line providers. This deployment was initially designed to test speed and latency, as well as the toll the harsh Alaskan climate takes on performance. Future Developments The telecommunications industry is going to see more technological change in the next five years than it has seen in the past 95 years. Five vital technologies that will contribute to these monumental changes are: Each one of these enhanced communication capabilities creates enormous moneymaking opportunities, as well as improvements in cost, speed, quality, and convenience for consumers.
Now, dishes measuring about three feet in diameter can be purchased for mere hundreds of dollars. As satellite services continue to improve there will be more encouragement for widespread use of wireless communication. Within the business traveler there are two potential markets. First, for those from the developed world who do business in less developed countries where the local phone service may be unreliable, and second, those who need mobile communications in their own countries but travel beyond the reach of terrestrial cellular systems.
Several different systems were proposed to handle this project. The Iridium plan calls for 66 satellites to be launched in six equally spaced orbital planes at an altitude of kilometers. Services to be provided include voice, data at 2. The Iridium voice connection is more robust than other proposed systems, due to the fact that Motorola requires that the handheld unit be usable from inside a vehicle.
The complexity of the Iridium system arises from the fact that the satellites are designed to communicate not only with the earth stations but also with each other. This cross-linking of satellites allows the system to use fewer ground stations, thus preventing signal blockage from buildings, trees, and other obstructions. To assure that traffic is routed properly, each satellite carries a set of routing tables from which new routing instructions are chosen every few minutes.
The Globalstar venture, like Iridium, will be based on low earth orbit satellites. Though Globalstar will not employ cross-links between satellites. This means that for a subscriber to gain access a satellite in view would also have to be in view of a ground station. So to achieve global coverage approximately earth stations would have to be constructed.
For this reason Globalstar is being targeted more towards business travelers in a single country. The Globalstar system will employ 48 satellites organized in eight planes of six satellites each. The satellite orbits will be circular, at 1, kilometers and an inclination of 52 degrees with respect to the equator.
The use of an inclined orbit concentrates the available satellite capacity at lower latitudes, where the largest populations exist; little or no coverage is provided beyond 70 degrees latitude in either hemisphere. Society uses the Internet as a way to shout out their opinions about any particular issue.
Now with three stores and a fourth due to open soon, a new database management system must be put into place. DBMSs are usually used to manage employee information of a big company, customer information and stock information.
Some developers would consider this a big advantage when working with database systems. The DBMS has a function that can be differentiate from the information retrieval system. Mobile service provider database project Freelancers and.
This process can be find through the passwords or keywords or query from the users. This is want to provide the useful information to the end user 5. Care providers adopt electronic books. Do some thinking about making changes to the fact that youve lost it motivated her to have stronger and much dispute. July Speech resynthesis. We soon developed written languages so we could store our collected information. MobileJara Premier Mobile VAS Provider OAuth has become a highly influential protocol due to its mobile service provider database term paper swift and wide adoption in the industry.
The employees take these materials from the shipping company, produce the product, and then deliver the finished product to the aerospace manufacturer customer. CBDI rejects this definition on two counts: First the components or implementations will often not be a set. Second the W3C definition of architecture only considers the implemented and deployed components, rather than the science, art or practice of building the architecture. The policies, practices, frameworks that enable application functionality to be provided and consumed as sets of services published at a granularity relevant to the service consumer.
Services can be invoked, published and discovered, and are abstracted away from the implementation using a single, standards-based form of interface. CBDI defines SOA as a style resulting from the use of particular policies, practices and frameworks that deliver services that conform to certain norms.
Examples include certain granularity, independence from the implementation, and standards compliance. What these definitions highlight is that any form of service can be exposed with a Web services interface. However higher order qualities such as reusability and independence from implementation, will only be achieved by employing some science in a design and building process that is explicitly directed at incremental objectives beyond the basic interoperability enabled by use of Web services.
However, Web services were merely a step along a much longer road. The notion of a service is an integral part of component thinking, and it is clear that distributed architectures were early attempts to implement service-oriented architecture. The Web service is the programmatic interface to a capability that is in conformance with WSnn protocols. So Web services provide us with certain architectural characteristics and benefits—specifically platform independence, loose coupling, self description, and discovery—and they can enable a formal separation between the provider and consumer because of the formality of the interface.
Service is the important concept. Web Services are the set of protocols by which Services can be published, discovered and used in a technology neutral, standard form. In fact Web services are not a mandatory component of a SOA, although increasingly they will become so.
SOA is potentially much wider in its scope than simply defining service implementation, addressing the quality of the service from the perspective of the provider and the consumer. You can draw a parallel with CBD and component technologies.
In the same way, Web services are purely the implementation. Many of these SOA characteristics were illustrated in a recent CBDI report , which compared Web services published by two dotcom companies as alternatives to their normal browser-based access, enabling users to incorporate the functionality offered into their own applications. In one case it was immediately obvious that the Web services were meaningful business services—for example enabling the Service Consumer to retrieve prices, generate lists, or add an item to the shopping cart.
While there is nothing at all wrong with this implementation, it requires that users understand the underlying model and comply with the business rules to ensure that your data integrity is protected. The WSDL tells you nothing about the business or the entities. This is an example of Web services without SOA.
SOA is not just an architecture of services seen from a technology perspective, but the policies, practices, and frameworks by which we ensure the right services are provided and consumed. So what we need is a framework for understanding what constitutes a good service.
If, as we have seen in the previous example, we have varying levels of usefulness, we need some Principles of Service Orientation that allow us to set policies, benchmarks and so on.
Interestingly the second set might have been addressed to some extent by organizations that have established mature component architectures. While high quality components have been created perhaps for certain core applications where there is a clear case for widespread sharing and reuse, more generally it has been hard to incur what has been perceived as an investment cost with a short term return on investment.
However when the same principles are applied to services, there is now much greater awareness of the requirements, and frankly business and IT management have undergone a steep learning curve to better understand the cost and benefits of IT systems that are not designed for purpose. The specification of obligations that client applications must meet needs to be formally defined and precise and the service must be offered at a relevant level of granularity that combines appropriate flexibility with ease of assembly into the business process.
Table 1 shows principles of good service design that are enabled by characteristics of either Web services or SOA. This makes process matters an essential consideration. Whilst some of the benefits of services might have been achieved by some organizations using components, there are relatively few organizations that rigorously enforce the separation of provision and consumption throughout the process.
This gets easier with services because of the formality of the interface protocols, but we need to recognize that this separation needs managing. With SOA it is critical to implement processes that ensure that there are at least two different and separate processes — for provider and consumer.
However, current user requirements for seamless end-to-end business processes, a key driver for using Web Services, mean that there will often be clear separation between the providing and consumer organizations, and potentially many to many relationships where each participant has different objectives but nevertheless all need to use the same service.
Our recommendation is that development organizations behave like this, even when both the providing and consuming processes are in-house, to ensure they are properly designing services that accommodate future needs.
For the consumer, the process must be organized such that only the service interface matters, and there must be no dependence upon knowledge of the service implementation. If this can be achieved, considerable benefits of flexibility accrue because the service designers cannot make any assumptions about consumer behaviours.
They have to provide formal specifications and contracts within the bounds of which consumers can use the service in whatever way they see fit. Consumer developers only need to know where the service is, what it does, how they can use it. The interface is really the only thing of consequence to the consumer as this defines how the service can be interacted with. Similarly, whilst the provider has a very different set of concerns, it needs to develop and deliver a service that can be used by the Service Consumer in a completely separate process.
The focus of attention for the provider is therefore again the interface—the description and the contract. Another way of looking at this is to think about the nature of the collaboration between provider and consumer.
At first sight you may think that there is a clear divide between implementation and provisioning, owned by the provider, and consumption, owned by the consumer. However if we look at these top level processes from the perspective of collaborations, then we see a very different picture. What we have is a significant number of process areas where depending on the nature of the service there is deep collaboration between provider and consumer. Potentially we have a major reengineering of the software delivery process.
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